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学习和实际工作所需能力没有显著差异
日期:2004-01-17  作者:  浏览量:5025 
  内容提要——习惯上,人们总是接受,学习的能力不等于实际工作能力的看法,但最近美国心理学家通过对100多个涉及20000人的研究资料进行元分析后,得出了与传统的观点不一致的结论。研究者指出,一般认知能力是可以同时预测个体学习能力和工作能力的有效指标。他们的结果主要来自对MAT(米勒推理测验,一种广泛应用于人事选拔、聘用的测试)的研究分析。在分析中,MAT显示出同时可以很好的预测学习和工作能力,由此,研究者指出,既往过于侧重对学习和工作能力的差异进行分析,但事实上,一般认知能力是一个能够较好预测两种能力的有效指标。该研究报告目前发表在美国《人格与社会心理学杂志》2004年第一期。
                    (星火,摘自美国心理协会网,2004年1月新闻报道)

  ABILITIES REQUIRED FOR SUCCESS IN SCHOOL DON’T DIFFER GREATLY FROM THOSE REQUIRED IN THE REAL WORLD WASHINGTON — Intelligence in the workplace is not that different from intelligence at school, according to the results of a meta-analysis of over one hundred studies involving more than 20,000 people. The findings contradict the popular notion that abilities required for success in the real world differ greatly from what is needed to achieve success in the classroom. The results are published in the January issue of the American Psychological Association’s (APA) Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.

  General cognitive ability, or g, has remained controversial since the concept was introduced nearly a century ago. Research has shown that g predicts a broad spectrum of behaviors and performances, including academic achievement, job performance, creativity and health-related behaviors. Despite this, many people, including some social scientists, continue to believe that the abilities required for job success and abilities required for academic success are different.

  In their meta-analysis of 127 studies involving 20,352 participants, psychologists Nathan R. Kuncel, Ph.D., and Sarah A. Hezlett, Ph.D., of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and Deniz S. Ones, Ph.D., of the University of Minnesota, Twin Cities Campus, set out to directly test whether the abilities related to performance in academic settings overlap with those predicting performance in work settings. To do this, they focused on studies that involved the Miller Analogies Test, or MAT. The MAT has been used for admissions decisions into graduate schools as well as in hiring and promotion decisions in the workplace. In use since 1926, the MAT is composed of analogies that require knowledge in many different areas, including sciences, literature, the arts, history and vocabulary.

  The researchers found that the MAT was valid for predicting performance in both academic and work environments, providing direct evidence that g is related to success in multiple domains. The MAT was found to be a valid predictor of several aspects of graduate student performance as well as measures of job performance, potential and creativity. The validity was at least as high for work criteria as for school criteria. The researchers found that the MAT was a valid predictor of seven of the eight measures of graduate student performance, five of the six school-to-work transition performance criteria, and all four of the work performance criteria.

  “Although the academic setting places a greater emphasis on the acquisition of knowledge, performance in both academic and work settings is predicted by g,” according to the researchers. “Both situations involve learning and contain complex or practical tasks and performance in both situations is partially determined by previously acquired levels of knowledge and skill. General cognitive ability is related to all three of these, which is why it should come as no surprise that the same cognitive ability test is a valid predictor of performance in both settings.”

  So why do so many people believe that the abilities required for success are so different for academic and work environments? “Perhaps the fact that tests and measures are often developed for particular settings, either educational or occupational, has perpetuated this myth,” say the authors. “Our prediction was – and the results confirm – that there is a general factor of cognitive ability which is a broad predictor of numerous life outcomes.”

 

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